Laboratory and In-Field Products

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Laboratory and In-Field

Flow assurance is a major concern to the petroleum industry, characterised by the numerous technical problems related to the nature of the produced effluents. These problems change gradually throughout the Field life, periodically requiring adjustment of the solution. The main problems are: 
 

  • Corrosion caused by - produced brine and dissolved gases, such as CO2 & H2S; 

  • Presence of Oxygen in the process system or microbial; 

  • Deposits from - Mineral scales or asphaltene or paraffin's; 

  • Water - Emulsions of oil or hydrate formations;

The Production and Processing of hydrocarbons involve a number of physical and chemical processes, which determine Field viability. Only when the geology and fluid dynamics are understood can Field development be fully evaluated and a decision to proceed to Production taken. The ability to carryout Field and Laboratory studies plays a major roll if Operators are to understand any flow assurance problems. Such understandings at this stage are of paramount importance to successful operations as of course is the ability to predict and respond to changes during Field life. Hydrocarbon production and processing facilities are therefore very complex engineering feats that require a delicate balance and often fine tuning in order to optimise production.

This knowledge is achieved through better understanding of the physical and chemical processes occurring though the extraction and processing chain. It is for the Process Measurement And Control of such processes that PMAC has developed and designed a unique product range of instrumentation and test equipment.

The Products displayed here are intended to be indicative of our in-house expertise, design and manufacturing capabilities. PMAC also offer clients a confidential R & D capability, under taking commissions for special prototype and one-off manufacture. Built upon years of experience offering "solutions" to flow assurance problems, PMAC service combines in-house chemical and process engineering to solution solving.

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Dynamic Scale Loop (DSL)
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Wax Deposition & Flow Loops
Corrosion & Chemical Sidestreams
Microbiological Sidestreams
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Corrosion Rotaing Cage

Dynamic Scale Loop

Original PMAC  Dynamic Scale Loop System for evaluation of scaling tendency and inhibitor performance.


The PMAC System is an invaluable research and development tool for technologists responsible for the design, operation and efficiency of water handling systems in which thermal; pressure or chemical changes promote the deposition of scales. The PMAC System provides an accurate, reproducible and rapid method for selecting and quantifying the most effective means of controlling scale deposition under dynamic conditions.

The PMAC series is suitable for use where the process or reservoir temperature is greater than 100 deg C. It is also recommended where the effects of pressure on scaling tendency is to be studied. It is the only means of studying the deposition of Anhydride under dynamic conditions. The PMAC Series are designed to the specific temperature and pressure range conditions desired by the client. Temperatures can range from ambient to 250 deg C and pressures up to 3000 psi or higher.

Download the brochure below to learn more about our range of dynamic scale loop.

 

Please do not hesitate to contact us for more extensive information or individual consulting.

Brochure Download

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Corrosion Sidestreams

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Download the brochure below to learn more about our range of corrosion sidestreams.

 

Please do not hesitate to contact us for more extensive information or individual consulting.

Brochure Download

 

The Field Corrosion Sidestream is designed for dynamic measurement of corrosion rates under flowing conditions in the absence of online/Intrusive systems. The standard systems typically operate at pressures of either 100 or 400 bar, although a low-pressure system is available in polycarbonate.
 

The HP systems are typically manufactured in a stainless steel frame or carrying case incorporating between 2-4 test cells, a flow indicator and integral system control valves. Cells are machined to accept either ½ or ¾" NPT probes. Optional chemical dosing pump can be fitted to allow for Field evaluation of inhibitors.

Corrosion monitoring is via ER or LPR Probes, connected to a portable hand held device or in-built data-logger. A variety of manufacturers probes & logging systems can be utilised with PMAC sidestream's, the choice is up to the end user.
 

The sidestream is ideal for determination / measurement of corrosion rates, the evaluation of the efficiency of corrosion inhibitors in the field or process plant where intrusive equipment has not been installed. One of the main advantages of Sidestream monitoring is the ability to rapidly deploy the unit between various process systems, increasing the overall value of investment.

 

Microbological Sidestreams

PMAC provide a comprehensive range of purpose built equipment and instrumentation for field-testing and measurement of oilfield chemistry issues. Having the ability to pre-empt or evaluate ever changing production scenarios is important in supporting a quality flow assurance system within any Integrity Management Programme.

 

​PMAC provide a range of side-stream systems that are small enough to be portable, yet robust enough for the rigors of oilfield environments. These can be simple “stand-alone” systems or included in a multi-functional side-stream. Whether evaluation of corrosion, dissolved oxygen, scale or wax; to chemical inhibitor evaluation and optimisation, PMAC have a solution for a broad range of production chemistry challenges.

The management of Microbiological contamination in water handling systems is of vital importance in any protective maintenance program. The more efficient the analytical procedures you have in place, the more effective the corrective action you can take. PMAC offer a range of Bio-Side streams, including low pressure Acetyl models, rated to 300 psi or the high pressure stainless steel or titanium model (standard rated to 3500 psi working pressure).

 

The standard design typically holds between 8 and 24 biostuds for the analysis of sessile microbiological contamination in water injection or produced water handling systems. It can be mounted vertically or horizontally and it is attached to the operating system directly from a standard sample point. In addition the outer valve may be simply run to a drain or looped back into the system.

 

Once installed the Side stream is easy to use and maintain. The water flow rate is set and the continuous monitoring commences immediately. Once a pre-determined flow or time lapse has been reached, a series of valves isolates the process system from the side stream, a bio-stud holder can then be removed and replaced as necessary. Analysis of the bio-stud is easily carried out using standard kits. Subsequently any necessary treatments can be introduced, overall proving an effective microbiological management of water systems.

A Robbins-type Bio-side stream unit, commonly used by Chemical Companies for the on-site testing of biocide efficacy; is suitable for use with oilfield water injection systems or other high volume water handling plant. The unit comprises four independent flow chambers, each with ten individual bio-stud access ports, and a chemical injection facility contained in a stainless steel skid. Each of the three test channels is fitted with a chemical injection facility enabling three separate treatment regimes, or biocide chemicals to be evaluated simultaneously. A separate channel is used for control (untreated) purposes.

​PMAC also manufacture a multitasking side stream, that utilises multiple flow through cells in series, allowing for the user to monitor for corrosion rates (LPR and or ER) in addition to biocide efficacy. PMAC have also adapted this side stream to offer mini-weight-loss corrosion coupons, offering longitudinal studies in parallel with biocide monitoring. The PMAC Multi-tasking Side stream is a cost effective technique enabling greater Process Measurement And Control in a single system. When fitted with injection ports, these systems allow for combined chemical optimisation trials (biocides, scavengers, inhibitors).

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Download the brochure below to learn more about our range of dynamic scale loop.

 

Please do not hesitate to contact us for more extensive information or individual consulting.

Brochure Download

 

Wax & Asphaltene

Coaxial Shearing Wax Deposition

The PMAC Coaxial Shearing Wax Deposition Apparatus developed to perform the Coaxial Cold Finger Test. The Coaxial Wax Deposition procedures are used to evaluate the efficiency of wax dispersant chemicals, flow improvers etc. Comparative tests can be performed with or without the presence of inhibitors. Shear conditions are simulated and the deposition rate is related to specific pipeline conditions.

Brochure Download

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Atmospheric Wax Flow Restart Rheology Rig

Deposition of complex and heavy organic compounds in crude and heavy oil can cause a number of severe problems up to pipeline blocking. This apparatus provides the ability to develop and test inhibiting chemicals.
The apparatus offers a variety of testing procedures at atmospheric pressure:
• Wax Deposition
• Restart - Shear Stress
The Atmospheric wax flow loop is used to evaluate the wax deposition potential in pipelines and assist with inhibitor selection.

Brochure Download

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Atmospheric Rotating Cage

This ASTM G184/G170 technique was developed to allow for a more detailed evaluation of the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors under severe field conditions within a laboratory environment. The high shearing capability of the Cage is a valuable tool when used in cooperation with the Rotating Cylinder Electrode technique (RCE).

The Rotating cage is an assembly attached to a rotator, whereby a number of corrosion coupons are mounted between two discs. The assembly may be then mounted into a low-pressure vessel for rapid screening of corrosion inhibitors or into a HPHT Autoclave for a detailed evaluation.

 

The cage is especially useful in evaluation of:

  • flow effects on corrosion (a limitation of the RCE technique)

  • inhibitor effectiveness under variable shearing conditions

  • rapid screening of inhibitors

Brochure Download

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