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Cathodic Protection (CP) and Flooded Member Detection (FMD) surveys of Subsea Pipelines and Structures
PMAC are not a manufacturer of intrusive & non-intrusive sand monitoring devices. Our monitoring equipment is generally supplied as stand-alone rental items or supplied as part of a site service.
Intrusive probes measure the metal loss and temperature of a sample element exposed to the process flow with a very high level of resolution. This provides the ability to rapidly detect erosion rates and register even the smallest ‘sand events’ instantaneously. The resolution of intrusive sand probes are in excess of 100 times that of conventional ER sand probes. Due to the very high resolution obtained, the results may be used in real time for proactive erosion management and system optimisation.
Intrusive sand probes are positioned in the pipe relative to the flow so that the solids bearing portion of the production stream contacts the sacrificial Sample Element, causing erosion. The loss of a single nano-metre of material can be detected. The rate of loss can be used to assess erosion effects or as a component in calculating the volume of solids produced. In the latter case, information about the flow must be collected simultaneously.
Intrusive probe systems have been designed for ease of integration. The output from instruments (metal loss and temperature) is provided in engineering units and tied in directly to the dedicated on board PC. Basic parameters can be converted to erosion rate; once the data is processed clear accumulative sand production and sand rate are calculated into the final report.
The probes can be designed for a range of functions and the sample element can be made from a wide range of different materials such as 316ss, Duplex or Inconel. Erosion probes employ an intrusive angle head design in order to simulate a directional change in the pipework.
The intrusive equipment consists of a purpose built spool piece 1 metre long with 2 x high pressure access fittings positioned at different orientations on the spool. The spool piece will be certified to 6,000 psi or 10,000 psi working pressure and will have end fittings/unions to mate with existing well test pipe work downstream of the choke manifold. The erosion monitoring probes are installed in the spool piece.
Non Intrusive System
The Particle Monitor is part of the DSP (Digital Signal Processing) series of instruments. The DSP Particle Monitor features complete digitisation, eliminating analogue filters, circuits and amplifiers. All signal processing is done within the sensor itself. This way there is no chance for any signal loss or chance of interference from external noise sources. All sensors are exactly alike and interchangeable, an advantage if sensors should be removed/relocated or in case of removal for maintenance/service.
The DSP’s increase in processing capacity enables the sensor to combine signals from several frequency ranges when analysing the flow. The sensors are versatile, and are the only instruments on the market offering two-way communication between sensor and control system. The solution enables future upgrade of the sensor by a simple download of new software. When using digital output from the sensors, the signal from the sensors can be daisy chained. The sensors have memory capacity for storing up to 60 days of data.
The non-intrusive sensors have individual mounting straps and are installed on a ‘bend’ in the pipework (upstream of the choke) so the solids in the fluid ‘hit’ the wall of the pipe causing a vibration. These vibrations, which are of a specific frequency compared to background noise etc, are filtered and converted to a sand quantity.
The Process Measurement and Control Group (PMAC) offer independent state of the art erosion monitoring systems combined with engineering excellence, to provide its global clients with a unique and independent solids management capability.
Reservoir damage, pipework erosion and deposition of solids are all potentially expensive results of sand production from hydrocarbon wells. Monitoring well profiles and sand production in real time utilising high resolution intrusive and class leading real time acoustic (non-intrusive) systems, can help our clients achieve safe and optimum well flow rates.
PMAC offer a portable well test system which mates with existing well test pipe work, including a purpose built spool with 3” 1502 hammer unions which is installed with Intrusive Sand Probes for measurement of sand/solids erosion and non-intrusive acoustic sensors for sand production quantification. PMAC engineers on site will interpret data and provide recommendations, allowing well/reservoir management teams to make on-site decisions. The PMAC service gives a record of events proving well status prior to initiation of full production.
Corrosion monitoring probes can be also included should the client require inhibiter performance data or general corrosion rates.
Laboratory and In-Field Technologies for Scale, Wax, Corrosion and Microbiology
SAND MONITORING / WELL TESTING
PMAC provides a completely integrated service that
Intrusive and Non-Intrusive Corrosion & Erosion Monitoring for Surface Facilities
The power supply for the system can be connected to a total of 2 sensors and is to be installed in a safe area. The acoustic sensors are located on the well test/flowline piping in the hazardous area. Cabling between sensors and the Power supply unit (PSU) is supplied. The PSU is connected to a PC with the multi-sensor particle monitoring software installed. This computer should be installed in the control room or other safe area.
The system can be permanently installed or portable to differing well sites